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28 mars 2013
Edith et Yan

Venezuela


Nous avons passé plus d’un mois au Venezuela, un pays complexe mais passionnant. Le contexte politique et social crée des possibilités de transformation sociale extraordinaire et permet des expériences réellement inspirantes. Même si le processus bolivarien est loin d’être parfait et porte en lui de nombreuses contradictions. Nous avons réalisé plusieurs reportages lors de ces quelques semaines passées au Venezuela, immergés dans des expériences « d’en bas ».

  • Venezuela, éclairage général : 14 ans après le début de la « révolution bolivarienne », le processus rentre dans une nouvelle étape avec la mort du président Chavez. Vue du vieux continent, la situation vénézuélienne reste souvent difficile à saisir, coincée entre une certaine mythification à gauche et des critiques idéologiques à droite. Dans cet article, en nous basant sur ce mois passé au Venezuela immergés dans des expériences « d’en bas », nous cherchons à poser un regard de gauche critique , partial et limité, sur quelques enjeux et contradictions du processus qui nous ont marqués. Voir : L’article écrit (version bêta, merci de ne pas diffuser dans sa version actuelle).

Attention : si un lien ne fonctionne pas, faire un clik droit sur celui-ci/ ouvrir dans un nouvel onglet ou visiter notre chaine vidéo : https://vimeo.com/channels/utopiasproject

  • Récupération d’entreprises, où en est-on ? Avec l’Argentine, le Venezuela fait partie des pays où l’idée de récupération d’entreprises et de gestion par les travailleurs a été le plus discutée. Pourtant, loin d’avoir ouvert un large chemin vers l’autogestion des entreprises, le processus bolivarien a plutôt créé un sentier escarpé. Voir : reportage mixte : écrit et vidéo
  • La coopérative CECOSESOLA. Coopérative de Barquisimeto (nord-est du Venezuela), au fonctionnement totalement autogestionnaire. Plus de 1200 travailleurs, aucun chef, aucun gérant, aucune structure hiérarchique, énormément de participation, de confiance et d’apprentissage, une rotation constante dans tous les postes de travail … et bien plus. Voir : Le reportage vidéo/L’article écrit/ D’un funérarium a un hôpital (La traduction en français que nous avons réalisé d’un petit documentaire de Cecosesola, sur leur histoire et la dynamique actuelle).

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Commentaires

55 Messages

  • Pierre Thomé 9 avril 2013
    18:24

    Excellent et grand merci pour ces reportages. Je suis enthousiasmé par la coopérative de Cecosesola !
    Une utopie concrète... Une remarque cependant : si l’on voit bien comment les règles de fonctionnement sont élaborées, rediscutées... en revanche on voit moins comment le non respect de ces règles est traitée... Dans la gouvernance (autogestion) des biens communs Elinor Ostrom insiste beaucoup sur ce point, de même pour les mécanismes de résolutions des conflits ; elle en fait une condition importante à la réussite de l’auto-organisation d’une entreprise coopérative ou communautaire (c’est le mot utilisé dans le reportage)

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    • Edith et Yan 29 avril 2013
      23:40

      Bonjour Pierre,

      Une fois de plus, merci pour tes encouragements.

      Cecosesola nous a beaucoup enthousiasmé aussi. Disons que c’est l’autogestion la plus poussée qu’on ai rencontrée jusqu’ici !

      Par rapport à ta remarque, deux choses nous viennent à l’esprit :

      • Les réunions sont vraiment centrales, essentielles et nombreuses. Et c’est aussi là que les conflits de toutes sortent sont discutés et résolus. Beaucoup nous ont dit : « quand il y a un problème, on cherche tous ensemble la solution ». Par exemple, à une réunion, on a assisté à une critique faite à une travailleuse. En bref, ça concernait le fait qu’elle partait plus tot. Elle a eu l’occasion de s’exprimer, d’autres de donner leur avis... Malheureusement on entendait très mal, on n’a donc pas entendu la fin. Mais c’est révélateur de la manière très ouverte et franche dont sont traités les cas de non-respect des règles. Plusieurs fois, lors d’entrevues, est sortie l’idée que un tel modèle de fonctionnement n’est pas fait pour tous, et que certains ne s’y adaptent pas. Dans ces cas-la, selon plusieurs travailleurs, ils ne font pas long feu. Soit qu’ils décident de partir d’eux-mêmes, soit que l’inadéquation récurrente de la personne avec les règles mènent le problème en réunion, oú la conclusion peut être que la personne doit partir. Une sorte de pression sociale communautaire peut-être. On ne l’a pas vu nous-mêmes. Lorsque j’ai demandé à une travailleuse qui nous expliquait ça si ca ne virait pas en jugement de tous contre un, elle m’a expliqué que normalement la présence aux réunions, la franchise, le respect permettent que ça se passe bien. Ils ne discutent pas de quelqu’un en son absence par exemple (a partir d’un certain point de conflictivité).

      Par ailleurs, de manière plus concrète, sur le contrôle en général, il n’y a pas de contrôle a priori des travailleurs (caméra, etc). Mais un contrôle a posteriori régulier pour être surs que tout tourne bien.

      Globalement, on pense que la clé de gestion et de résolutions des conflits chez Cecosesola est que leur mode de vie communautaire étant basé sur les réunions, les discussions sont quotidiennes et sont là pour résoudre toutes les tensions qui apparaissent. Et le fait qu’il y en ait beaucoup, instaurées comme normales, permettent qu’il y ait le (beaucoup) de temps de faire ça bien. La résolution des conflits fait partie intégrante de l’horaire de travail.

      Amicalement,

      Johan et Edith

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